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Triple-X syndrome occurs in women who inherit three X chromosomes--their genotype is XXX or more rarely XXXX or XXXXX.As adults, these "super-females" or "metafemales" , as they are sometimes known, generally are an inch or so taller than average with unusually long legs and slender torsosbut otherwise appear normal. They usually have normal development of sexual characteristics and are fertile but tend to have some ovary abnormalities that can lead to premature ovarian failure . They may have slight learning difficulties , especially in speech and language skills, and are usually in the low range of normal intelligence (especially the XXXX and XXXXX individuals). They frequently are very tall in childhood and tend to be emotionally immature for their size. This sometimes results in teachers and other adults labeling them as troublemakers because they expect more maturity from bigger girls. However, they are usually as emotionally mature as other girls of their age. None of these traits prevent them from being socially accepted as ordinary adult women. Individuals who are genetic mosaics (XX/XXX) have less noticeable symptoms. Triple-X syndrome is less rare than Turner syndrome, but little is known about it. T he frequency is approximately 1 in 1,000 female infants and it occurs more commonly when the mother is older.

Male Sex Chromosome Abnormalities

Klinefelter syndrome males inherit one or more extra X chromosomes--their genotype is XXY or more rarely XXXY or XY/XXY mosaic. In severe cases, t heyhave relatively high-pitched voices, asexual to feminine body contours as well as breast enlargement, and comparatively little facial and body hair. They are sterile or nearly so, and their testes and prostate gland are small. As a result, they produce relatively small amounts of testosterone . The feminizing effects of this hormonal imbalance can be significantly diminished if Klinefelter syndrome boys areregularly given testosterone from the age of puberty on. Like triple-X females (described above), many Klinefelter syndrome men are an inch or so above average height. They also are likely to be overweight. They usually have learning difficulties as children, especially with language and short-term memory. If not given extra help in early childhood, this often leads to poor school grades and a subsequent low self esteem. However, most men who have Klinefelter syndrome are sufficiently ordinary in appearance and mental ability to live in society without notice. It is not unusual for Klinefelter syndrome adults with slight symptoms to be unaware that they have it until they are tested for infertility. They are usually capable of normal sexual function, including erection and ejaculation, but many, if not most, are unable to produce sufficient amounts of sperm for conception. Klinefelter syndrome males with more than two X chromosomes usually have extreme symptoms and are often slightly retarded mentally . Men who are mosaic (XY/XXY) generally have the least problems. There is no evidence that Klinefelter syndrome boys and men are more inclined to be homosexual, but they are more likely to be less interested in sex. They have a higher than average risk of developing Top Quality Online Outlet Big Sale Red Patent Leather Nizip 60 boots DORATEYMUR Finishline Cheap Online Clearance Low Cost Cheap Sale Clearance FEfmGdH0
, diabetes, and other autoimmune disorders that are more common in women. This may be connected to low testosterone production. Subsequently, regular testosterone therapy is often prescribed. The frequency of Klinefelter syndrome has been reported to be between 1 in 500 and 1 in 1000 male births. This makes it one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities. Males with Down syndrome sometimes also have Klinefelter syndrome. Both syndromes are more likely to occur in babies of older mothers.

(Of course, in Racket you could just use match , but now we're getting ahead of ourselves.)

We can use it like so:

So far, so good, right? But

Now that I’ve defined my handy-dandy pattern-matching macro if-match , I’m stuck with whatever patterns I thought up when I wrote it. If I come up with a new pattern, I have to rewrite if-match to support it.

This stinks! Consider: Hilary the Hacker writes a spiffy lazy stream library, while Charlie the Coder writes a fast B-tree library. Naturally, both want to support pattern-matching. They can either:

Each implement their own custom pattern-matching macros. This duplicates work, defeats standardization, and makes it impossible to pattern-match on a stream and a tree at the same time.

Bug me to include support for Hilary’s streams and Charlie’s trees in my if-match library. This introduces irrelevant dependencies, and over time, a big ugly monolithic ball of code will accrete. Victorian snakeskineffect leather laceup boots AlexaChung Get Authentic Online Free Shipping Wide Range Of To Buy Purchase Online Discount Pre Order d7cmHj

The whole meaning of modularity is avoiding this rock-and-a-hard-place choice between duplicating work and centralizing it.

The problem with if-match is that it requires you to think of everything in advance — exactly the difficulty macros are supposed to solve! Macros are Lisp’s standard lan­guage ext­ension mechanism, and patterns are just a small, domain-specific lan­guage.

So why can’t we just define new patterns with macros ?

Here’s how this might work. Suppose we already know how to match the following patterns:

It would be handy to have a pattern (list A 1 ... A n ) , which matches an n -element list whose 1 st element matches A 1 , whose 2 nd element matches A 2 , … and so on up to A n . For example, (list x 2 y) would match (1 2 3) , binding x to 1 and y to 3 .

I’m proposing that this be done using a macro for patterns , with something like the following mock- syntax:

This solves Hilary and Charlie’s library problem: instead of rolling their own incompatible pattern-matchers, or asking me to rewrite if-match , they separately extend if-match using defpattern define-pattern-syntax . These extensions are pulled into scope when I import their libraries, just as a macro would be. 5

This idea is not original to me: The Racket language’s match macro is extensible via define-match-expander . The optima library for Common Lisp exposes a defpattern macro as well. I don’t know of a Clojure library that uses this approach per se , but Clearance Outlet Store Order Donna sandals Black Stuart Weitzman Tgw0AnQSD
is extensible in other .

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/ Women's Health / Abnormal Pap Smear

Women are encouraged to start getting yearly Pap smears at the ageof 21 or within 3 years of becoming sexually active. Pap smears are not diagnostictests, but they are screening tools used to find any abnormal cells or dysplasia in the cervix.

When women are faithful in having regular Pap smears,they increase their chances for early detection and treatment of anypotential problems.

What does an abnormal pap smear mean?

Being alarmed or worried is a completely normal reaction when toldyour Pap smear is abnormal. An abnormal Pap smear may indicate thatyou have an infection or abnormal cells called dysplasia . It’s important to remember that abnormal Pap smear results do notmean you have cancer.

These results just show that further testingshould be done to verify whether or not there is a problem.

An abnormal Pap smear may indicate any of the following:

A positive result indicates the presence of abnormalcells, also called an abnormal Pap . Remember that this is a test,not a diagnosis. A positive result does not prove that you have canceror even dysplasia (a pre-cancerous condition).

positive result

However, itusually means you should have further evaluation, such as another Pap smear, a colposcopy(using a microscope to look into the cervix) or a biopsy (removing asmall amount of tissue from the cervix). Your doctor will discussthe results with you.

One in ten Pap smears indicate some abnormality, though most arenot serious. Further testing will be required to determine if youhave infection, inflammation, a yeast infection , trichomoniasis, herpesor the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).

HPV is the main risk factorfor cervical cancer , but most women who receive treatment for abnormal cells caused by HPV, do not develop cervical cancer.

In 2003, the FDA approved a screening test that can be done in conjunction with a Pap smear to determine if you have the HPV virus.The HPV DNA test can detect high risk types of HPV before any abnormal cells can be detected on the cervix. This screening is recommended for women over the age of 30, who are at an increased risk of an HPV infection turning into pre-cancerous cells.

Some Pap smears indicate an unsatisfactory sample because of recentsexual activity or use of vaginal creams and douches. Regardless ofthe reason, an abnormal Pap will require another Pap smear in a fewmonths.

If the abnormal cells are persisting, you may need further treatment, which may include the following:

Even if individuals with low immunocompetence were more likely to be infected with pathogens and parasites, it would still be necessary to show that such infections reduce fitness. Although it is generally accepted that parasites can reduce the fitness of their hosts ( Clayton and Moore, 1997 ; Loye and Zuk, 1991 ), links among life-history decisions, immunocompetence, parasitism, and fitness must be established to show that immunocompetence trade-offs are likely to be of evolutionary significance. It is possible that life-history decisions influence immunocompetence, which in turn influences parasitism, but that increased parasitism has negligible fitness consequences in specific cases. For example, Norris et al. ( 1994 ) showed that increased reproductive effort by male great tits increased the prevalence of their hematozoan parasites. If we assume this was due to reduced immunocompetence, is this sufficient evidence of a significant trade-off? Circumstantial evidence would suggest not, as a number of studies have failed to show that increased reproductive effort in great tits causes a reduction in adult survival or future fecundity (e.g., Pettifor et al., 1988 ; Tinbergen and Daan, 1990 ), which would be expected if reduced immunocompetence and increased parasitism reduced the fitness of males.

There is experimental evidence from work on domestic fowl of direct links among immunocompetence, pathogens and parasites, and fitness. Gross et al. ( 1980 ) investigated the ability of lines of domestic fowl, selected for aspects of humoral immunocompetence, to control experimental infections with a range of pathogens and parasites. Two specific types of selection were included in the study with respect to humoral immunocompetence: (1) lines selected for high (HA) and low (LA) antibody response toward sheep erythrocytes, and (2) lines selected for persistent (PA) and nonpersistent (NPA) antibody responses to sheep erythrocytes. With the exception of bacterial infections, the HA and PA selected lines had higher fitness than the LA and NPA lines when exposed to a range of viral and parasitic infections. This implies a link between immunocompetence and fitness. However, it could be argued that differences in fitness between strains (i.e., HA and LA or PA and NPA) could have arisen for reasons other than immunocompetence. This explanation seems unlikely because, for certain infections that could be treated, the administration of drugs removed the fitness difference between strains ( Gross et al., 1980 ).

If a reduction in immunocompetence has fitness consequences because it renders hosts more susceptible to infection with pathogens or parasites, then immunocompetence should be positively correlated with survival. There is some evidence to support this idea. Saino et al. ( 1997a ) showed that male barn swallows surviving to a subsequent breeding season showed a significantly stronger antibody response toward sheep erythrocytes than nonsurviving males. Christe et al. ( 1998 ) showed that nestling house martins ( Delichon urbica ) of low rank within the brood hierarchy, which also had poor cell-mediated immunocompetence, were less likely to survive the prefledging period than higher ranking, more immunocompetent siblings. Nordling et al. ( 1998 ) showed that female collared flycatchers raising enlarged broods had lower humoral immunocompetence, increased parasitism, and that parasitism was associated with a reduction in survival probability to a subsequent breeding season.

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